Glossary

Alcohol consumption: On average, it is considered safe for women to consume up to two standard drinks daily, and for men, four drinks daily.  A standard drink being 10g of alcohol which may equate to a glass of wine (approx. 100ml), glass of beer (approx. 250ml), or a shot of spirits (approx. 30ml).  For pregnant and breastfeeding women, it is advised that no alcohol be consumed, particularly in the first trimester (first 3 months of pregnancy) as this is the time in which your baby’s organs and the rest of their body is being developed.  After this time it is still probably best to avoid alcohol however, if you have a strong craving on occasion, drinking one glass slowly is probably safe.

Anaemia: When insufficient oxygen to tissues and organs, due the inability of red blood cells being able to efficiently carry oxygen, or due to too few red blood cells in the bloodstream.

Anencephaly: A congenital absence of the brain and cranial vault, with the cerebral hemispheres completely missing or greatly reduced in size.

Anxiety: The unpleasant emotional state consisting of psychophysiological responses in anticipation of unreal or imagined danger, resulting from unrecognised intrapsychic conflict. Symptoms include increased heart rate, altered respiration rate, sweating, trembling, weakness and fatigue, psychological concomitants include feelings of impending danger, powerlessness, apprehension and tension.

Aquarobics: any aerobic exercises performed in water

Baby blues: Baby or maternity blues are a mild and transitory moodiness suffered by up to 80% of postnatal women (and in some cases fathers). Symptoms typically last from a few hours to several days, and include tearfulness, irritability, anxiety, sleeplessness, impairment of concentration, isolation and headache. The maternity blues are not the same thing as postpartum (post natal) depression (see below), nor are they a precursor to postpartum depression or postnatal psychosis.

Breastfeeding: The ability of the breast to produce milk to feed a mother’s baby soon after childbirth. Immunity factors in breast milk can help the baby to fight off infections. Breast milk contains vitamins, minerals, and enzymes which aid the baby’s digestion. Breast and formula feeding can be used together.

Caffeine intake: while it has been suggested that it is safe to consume drinks/food containing caffeine, it is probably best to limit your intake to the equivalent of one coffee per day.  Avoiding caffeine however, may be ideal, especially if you have high blood pressure.

Calcium: An important component of a healthy diet, calcium is essential for the normal growth and maintenance of all cells, bones and teeth.

Conception: The onset of pregnancy, marked by implantation and proliferation of new cells leading to the formation your new baby

Conceiving: The act of conception.

Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of the faeces.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): Blood clotting in the veins of the inner thigh or leg. In air travel, DVT is the economyclass syndrome. Blood clots can break off (as an embolism), with the potential of finding its way to the lungs, causing respiratory distress and respiratory failure.

Dental care: Looking after the health of one’s teeth

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): an omega-3 fatty acid incorporated into neural and eye tissue, DHA is critical for the development and function of the brain, nerve cells, and the eyes.  DHA is also important in the function and maintenance of the immune system, hormone regulation, and general health. Found in fish oil, and in oil derived from some plants including flaxseeds.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA): an omega-3 fatty acid found in fish oil and in oil derived from some plants. Important in assisting the function of the brain and immune system. Important for general wellbeing.

Embolism: The sudden blocking of an artery by a clot or foreign material

Engorgement: The filling of blood vessels in some part of the body.

Fish oil: Derived from fish containing DHA and EPA polyunsaturated fatty acids.  Tuna oil is considered the best quality, containing the highest levels of DHA.

Folic acid/folate: Are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. Leafy vegetables including spinach, turnip greens, lettuces, dried beans and peas, fortified cereal products, sunflower seeds and certain other fruits and vegetables are rich sources of folate. Folate is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells. This is especially important during periods of rapid cell division and growth such as infancy and pregnancy. Folate is needed to replicate DNA. Both adults and children need folate to make normal red blood cells and prevent anemia. Refer to the nutrition section.

Formula: Combination of ingredients and the process by which those ingredients are combined.
Forum: A public meeting place for open discussion.

Genetic diseases (pre-conception check): Usually requiring blood samples from the parents to test for whether they may be carriers of some genetic conditions, testing determines the risk that a potential child of theirs may become afflicted with a condition. This allows potential parents to make an informed decision.

German measles: Rubella is another term for German measles, an acute viral illness that starts as an upper respiratory infection and evolves into a generalised rash. Immunisation is advisable (MMR vaccine). Testing for Rubella antibody is performed routinely in pregnant females as a check for German measles immunity

Haemorrhoids: A varicose dilatation of a vein from a persistent increase in venous pressure. Usually it appears as a livid and painful swelling formed by the dilation of the blood vessels around or within the anus, from which blood or mucus is occasionally discharged.

Heartburn: An uneasy burning sensation in the stomach, typically extending toward the esophagus, and sometimes associated with the eructation of an acid fluid.

High blood pressure: Elevation of the arterial blood pressure or a condition resulting from it; hypertension.

Iodine: Iodine is an essential trace element; its only known roles in biology are as constituents of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Iodine is important for maintenance of one’s metabolism. Associated with the sea or seawater, seaweed and iodised salt or sea salt are good sources of iodine. See the nutrition section.

Iron: Iron is essential to nearly all known organisms. Good sources of dietary iron include red meat, fish, poultry, lentils, beans, leaf vegetables, tofu, chickpeas, black-eyed peas, potatoes with skin, bread made from completely whole-grain flour, molasses, teff and farina. Iron in meat is more easily absorbed than iron in vegetables.

Labour: The act of giving birth to a baby. The first stage lasts from the onset of labour until there is full dilation (10 cm.) of the cervical opening. The first stage of labour is also called the stage of dilatation. The second stage lasts from the full dilatation of the cervix until the baby is completely out of the birth canal and has been born. The second stage of labour is also called the stage of expulsion. The third stage lasts from birth of the foetus through expulsion or extraction of the placenta and membranes (afterbirth). The third stage of labour is also called the placental stage. The fourth stage is the hour or two after delivery when the tone of the uterus is established and the uterus contracts down again.

Linea nigra: refers to the dark vertical line that appears on the abdomen during pregnancy. The brownish streak is usually about a centimeter in width. The line runs vertically along the midline of the abdomen. It is caused by pregnancy hormones that increase production of the pigment melanin.

Lochia: Is the post-partum vaginal discharge, containing blood, mucus, and placental tissue. Lochia discharge typically continues for 4 to 6 weeks after childbirth. Lochia generally has an odor similar to that of normal menstrual fluid. Any offensive odor indicates a possible infection and should be reported to a healthcare provider.

Magnesium: Magnesium is essential to the basic chemistry of life, and thus are essential to all cells of all known living organisms. Many enzymes require the presence of magnesium to work, especially enzymes involved in metabolism, or those involved in the synthesis of DNA and RNA.

Mastitis

Maternal Goiter:  Also goitre or bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck due to an enlarged thyroid gland. Usually the result of iodine deficiency (see iodine above), the condition is more common among women, but this includes the many types of goitre caused by autoimmune problems, and not only those caused by simple lack of iodine.

Meditation: Describes a state of concentrated attention on some object of thought or awareness. It usually involves turning the attention inward to a single point of reference. The benefits of the practice can engender a higher state of consciousness. Different meditative disciplines encompass a wide range of spiritual and/or psychophysical practices which can emphasize development of either a high degree of mental concentration, or the apparent converse, mental quiescence.

Menopause: the natural and permanent stopping of the monthly female reproductive cycles, and in humans this is usually indicated by a permanent absence of monthly periods or menstruation. Menopause usual occurs more or less in midlife, signaling the end of the fertile phase of a woman’s life.

Morning sickness: also called nausea, vomiting of pregnancy or pregnancy sickness, affects 50-95% of all pregnant women as well as some women who use hormonal contraception or hormone replacement therapy. The nausea can be mild or induce actual vomiting. In extreme cases, known as hyperemesis gravidarum, hospitalisation may be required to treat the resulting dehydration.

Nappy rash: Also known as diaper rash, is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the nappy/diaper area that are caused by a various skin disorders and/or irritants. Also a common symptom during teething, the best way to avoid nappy rash is to topically apply a thick barrier cream and/or a baby powder to the area when changing nappies/diapers. Corn flour is a good alternative for baby powder.

Natal exam / examination: Usually the sampling of amniotic fluid around the foetus for the testing of genetic conditions.

Newborn jaundice: Or neonatal jaundice is usually harmless. Often seen in infants around the second day after birth, lasting until day 8 in normal births, or to around day 14 in premature births. Serum bilirubin normally drops to a low level without any intervention required. The jaundice is presumably a consequence of metabolic and physiological adjustments after birth.

Neural tube defects: A neural tube defect will occur in human embryos if there is an interference with the closure of the neural tube which occurs around the 28th day after conception. Pregnant women taking medication for epilepsy have a higher chance of having a child with a neural tube defect. Research has shown that women with folic acid deficiencies also have a higher chance of having a child with a neural tube defect. In Canada, mandatory fortification of selected foods with folic acid has been shown to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects by 46%. Women who are or could become pregnant are advised to take daily supplements of folic acid, unless their dietary intake of this nutrient is normally high. Types of neural tube defects include anencephaly, encephalocele, spina bifida including myelomeningocele, and others.

Nutrition: see the nutrition section for nutritional sources and for guidance on what your nutritional requirements.

Oedema: also known as edema and formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is the increase of interstitial fluid or swelling in any organ. Generally, the amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid, and increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium (between cells) or impaired removal of this fluid may cause oedema.

Period: Also known as menstruation is a phase of the menstrual cycle in which the uterine lining (endometrium) is shed. Eumenorrhea denotes normal, regular menstruation that lasts for a few days (from 2 to 7 days). The normal blood loss during menstruation is 10-80mL with many females noting the shedding of the endometrium lining that appears as tissue mixed with the blood. Because of this blood loss, females have higher dietary requirements for iron than do males to prevent iron deficiency. Many females experience uterine cramps, also referred to as dysmenorrhea, during this time.

Perineum: The perineum is the region of the body inferior to the pelvic diaphragm and between the legs. A diamond-shaped area on the inferior surface of the trunk which includes the anus and, in females, the vagina.

Pelvic floor exercise: Or Kegel exercises, is an exercise designed to strengthen the pubococcygeus muscles. The exercise consists of contracting and relaxing the muscles which form part of the pelvic floor. The aim of Kegel exercises is to restore muscle tone and strength to the pubococcygeus muscles in order to prevent or reduce pelvic floor problems and to increase sexual gratification. Kegel exercises are said to be good for treating vaginal prolapse and preventing uterine prolapse in women; and for treating prostate pain and swelling resulting from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis in men. Kegel exercises may be beneficial in treating urinary incontinence in both men and women. The pubococcygeal muscles are those used to stop the flow of urine during urination, and they may be easily identified in this way

PM Meno-care: Specifically formulated to improve the wellbeing of women, PM Meno-care has been used clinically to alleviate menstrual problems through the relief of menstrual pain and cramps, pre-menstrual breast pain, symptomatic relief of symptoms/syndrome, heavy and irregular periods, and relief of pre-menstrual tension/syndrome. PM Meno-care is also formulated to assist in the management of menopause, and provide relief of menopausal symptoms, including physical (hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal dryness) and psychological (irritability) symptoms, preliminary clinical trials have demonstrated that PM Meno-care provides additional health benefits throughout a women’s life.

PM Procare: To be taken before, during and after pregnancy. PM Procare is a pregnancy and breastfeeding formula that provides important nutrients to assist mothers with their body’s increased nutritional demand and for their baby’s development. If taken daily one month before conception and during pregnancy, PM Procare can contribute to a normal pregnancy. By combining essential nutrients this formulation also assists in the improvement and maintenance of general wellbeing. 

Postnatal depression: also called postpartum depression is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. Studies report prevalence rates among women from 5% to 25%, but methodological differences among the studies make the actual prevalence rate unclear. If you or others feel that you may suffer from this condition, it is advised that you see a healthcare practitioner. 

Pre-conception checks: Usually requiring blood samples from the parents to test for whether they may be carriers of some genetic conditions, testing determines the risk that a potential child of theirs may become afflicted with a condition. This allows potential parents to make an informed decision. 

Pregnancy Chart: A guide on this website detailing when it is advisable to take Procare. PM Procare is a pregnancy and breastfeeding formula that provides important nutrients to assist mothers with their body’s increased nutritional demand and for their baby’s development. If taken daily one month before conception and during pregnancy, PM Procare can contribute to a normal pregnancy. By combining essential nutrients this formulation also assists in the improvement and maintenance of general wellbeing. 

Purchasing products: To purchase Procare or any of our many products, dial (Australia)

1800 339 890 or (International): +61 3 9824 0182. Alternatively email: mailorder@maxbiocare.com[h1]  or purchase Procare online at the Online shop: www.naturalmedicine-central.com[h2] . 

Rubella: also known as German measles, rubella is an acute viral illness that starts as an upper respiratory infection and evolves into a generalised rash. Immunisation is advisable (MMR vaccine). Testing for Rubella antibody is performed routinely in pregnant females as a check for German measles immunity. 

Smoking: Like alcohol, smoking (direct and passive) is noxious and exposure to it should be avoided throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding. As smoking is detrimental to one’s health it also affects the development and health of children exposed to it (i.e. smoking around children and pregnant/breasetfeeding women should be avoided). 

Spina bifida: see “neural tube defects[h3] ” above. 

Stress: When constantly worried or overly concerned. It is not unusual for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers to stress or worry over their child. If you feel overwhelmed it helps to have supportive people around you such as your partner or spouse, and family and friends. If this doesn’t help, consult your healthcare provider

Teething: The process of teeth formation which usually occurs within the first year. Teeth form under the gums and are pushed out over time. Usually the bottom front teeth are the first teeth to appear.

Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA): Situated in Australia, the TGA is one of the World’s strictest regulatory authorities, ensuring regulation of quality and manufacturing of therapeutic products including complementary medicines such as natural or herbal products and health supplements.

Unfortunately, these products are not regulated in many countries, including the US, South America, parts of Asia, Eastern Europe, and Africa. This means that you cannot be sure of the quality or amount of ingredients in natural products from these regions.

As products through Max Biocare, and its subsidiaries PharmaMetics, AusBiopharm, Nutrimedical Research Group and Health Practitioner’s Preference are manufactured and tested according to TGA guidelines in Australia, you are guaranteed to get what is on the label, that is quality ingredients in the amount stated on the label and a quality product. For more information about the regulation of therapeutic goods visit our website www.maxbiocare.com[h4] .

Thrombosis: Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. 

Toxoplasma: Is a species of parasite. The host is the cat, but the parasite can be carried by the vast majority of warm-blooded animals, including humans. The causative agent of toxoplasmosis, the disease, is usually minor and self-limiting but can have serious or even fatal effects on a fetus whose mother first contracts the disease during pregnancy or on an immunocompromised human or cat. 

Tuna oil: Oil from tuna is the best quality fish oil, containing the highest levels of DHA polyunsaturated fatty acids. Also containing high levels of EPA fatty acids, the tuna oil contained in Procare and other Max Biocare products are sourced from the deep, clean South Pacific Seas and processed and tested to ensure quality and purity without contaminants such as heavy metals. 

Ultrasound: Medical sonography (ultrasonography) is a diagnostic medical imaging technique used to visualise a fetus to monitor their development during prenatal care . Ultrasound scans are performed by medical health care professionals called sonographers. Obstetric sonography is commonly used during pregnancy. 

Varicose veins: Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted. These usually occur to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins occur elsewhere. When veins become enlarged, the valves contained in these veins no longer work so well. Varicose veins are more common in women than in men, and are linked with heredity, pregnancy, obesity, menopause, aging, prolonged standing, leg injury and abdominal straining. Varicose veins are bulging veins that are larger than spider veins, 3mm or more in diameter. There are different forms of treatment, surgical and non-surgical. If you have varicose veins see your healthcare professional. 

Vegetarian: Where a person does not consume meat or products derived from animals. As meat is normally an important component in the human diet, vegetarians need to replace meat with other foods such as eggs, dairy products, and nuts. Vegetarians are particularly prone to iron deficiency (see nutrition section). 

Vitamins: Like minerals, vitamins are micronutrients required for good health. The requirement for these and other nutrients increases during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. These include fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K; and water soluble vitamins B group, and C. For information on these vitamins refer to our nutrition section.

Zinc: A component in all cells throughout the body, zinc is an essential mineral required for good health. While particularly important for male health, zinc is also utilised by the immune system.