Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part II – Vitamin D, Vitamin A, Iron, Zinc, Iodine, Essential Fatty Acids

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010 Apr 14

Simpson JL, Bailey LB, Pietrzik K, Shane B, Holzgreve W.

Abstract: The second part of this review focuses on additional micronutrients. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin found in foods of animal origins (fatty fish, liver oil) or fortified products (milk, cheese). Vitamin D deficiency is common in African-American women living in northern latitudes. Supplementation of Vitamin D may be required to reach desired 25-(OH)D3 concentrations of >50 nmol/L. Preformed Vitamin A are present in foods of animal origins, Vitamin precursors (Beta-carotenoids) are present in plants (fruits and vegetables). Vitamin A supplementation is usually not warranted, and in developing countries should not exceed 3000mcg (10,000IU). Iron in the form of haem-iron is present in meat, fish and poultry; none-haem (inorganic) iron is found in vegetables, fruits and grains. Iron supplementation may be required in the third trimester, early pregnancy stages or in non-pregnant women if serum <20 mug/L or haemoglobin <10.9 g/dL. Supplementation for zinc is not necessary because it is available in red meat, seafood (e.g. oysters) and unpolished grains. To assure adequate iodine intake, food is fortified worldwide with iodated salt. If urinary iodine levels are low, supplementation is necessary. Essential fatty acids requirements can be met by eating one or two portions of fish each week.